A good knowledge of the different levels of corrective and preventive maintenance allows to improve the management of interventions on the machine park. In France, we refer to the French Standardization Association (Afnor) standard X 60-010 (1994), which defines 5 levels of industrial maintenance, depending on the complexity of the work to be done. This classification is very useful to decide if an operation can be performed internally or if it is necessary to call upon qualified external service providers.
What is a maintenance level?
The concept of maintenance levels is intended to keep an industrial machine park as valuable as possible, both in terms of equipment value and in terms of performance and safety. A good practical application of the different maintenance levels allows to achieve an optimal maintenance.
Therefore, the French Standardization Association has defined, in the X 60-010 (1994) standard, then in the NF X 60-000 (2016) standard, 5 levels of maintenance. Each level corresponds to a degree of complexity of the corresponding maintenance interventions.
Thanks to this classification, it is possible to determine the level of expertise required and the methods that will have to be used to carry out an operation. It also allows to evaluate if an intervention can be done internally or if it is necessary to call upon qualified external providers.
What are the 5 levels of maintenance?
There are 5 levels of maintenance, from the simplest to the most complex. Each level has its own corrective and preventive maintenance actions.
Level 1 maintenance
The 1st level maintenance corresponds to the simple interventions, necessary and realized on easily accessible elements. These operations do not require the dismantling or opening of the equipment and can be carried out by the operator himself or by a non-specialized operator.
Only a few spare parts or consumables are used for these operations. There is no particular safety risk if the essential instructions are available, e.g. on a manual or visual instructions.
|Examples of corrective level I maintenance||Examples of preventive level I maintenance|
|Light bulb replacement||Condition monitoring rounds|
|Common locksmith operations, scrapers||Daily lubrication|
|Manual handling of mechanical elements|
|Control console lamps testing|
|Filter clogging control|
Level 2 maintenance
The level 2 maintenance corresponds to the less complex interventions, whose procedures are simple to follow. Moreover, the replacement of parts during these operations does not require the global dismantling of the equipment concerned.
These tasks must be performed by a qualified technician with safety and hazard training. Therefore, they are usually performed by a technician of average qualification.
|Examples of corrective level II maintenance||Examples of preventive level II maintenance|
|Standard exchange replacement: fuses, belts, air filters, etc.||Parameter control on equipment in operation with measuring tools integrated to the equipment|
Braids, stuffing box, etc. replacement
|Easy settings (pulley alignment, engine alignment)|
|Breaking devices and safety devices control (sensors, circuit breakers, fuses), etc.|
Standard exchange replacements on individual wear or outdated components (rail, slide rail, roller, rolls, chains, fuses, belting, etc.)
|Run-off surface descaling (cooling towers)|
|Weekly or monthly lubrication|
|Hard-to-reach filters replacement|
Level 3 maintenance
Level 3 maintenance corresponds to interventions considered as complex. These interventions must therefore be preceded by a diagnosis and identification. They can be carried out on site or in a maintenance workshop, and must take into account the equipment as a whole, because the modification of an element can have consequences on its general operation.
Level 3 maintenance operations must be performed by specialized technicians using the tools indicated in the machine’s maintenance instructions.
Examples of corrective level III maintenance
Examples of preventive level III maintenance
|Diagnosis||Control and settings that require measuring tools external to the machine|
|Repairing a refrigerant leak (cooling unit)||Preventive maintenance visits on complex equipment|
|Standard exchange replacement on components by general technical expertise, with no common or specialized support means (controller card, cylinder, pump, engine, gear, bearing, etc.)||Ignition and combustion control (boilers)|
Level 4 maintenance
Level 4 maintenance operations are complex and of great importance, requiring special technical expertise.
They must therefore be carried out by a technician or a team of specialized technicians with a specific qualification, and supervised by a specialized manager.
These interventions are carried out in workshops providing adapted tools, documentation and measurement benches.
|Examples of corrective level IV maintenance||Examples of preventive level IV maintenance|
|Compressor valves replacement||Vibration analysis|
Cable head replacement (alternative low voltage)
|Pump revision in a specialized repair shop after a preventive discard||Infrared thermography (electrical, mechanical or thermal installation, etc.)|
|Repairing means of production using measuring tools or collective and/or highly complex diagnoses (portable programming, numerical control regulation system, regulators, etc.)||Technical parameters collection that require collective measuring tools (oscilloscope, vibration data collector) with data analysis|
Level 5 maintenance
Level 5 maintenance includes complex actions performed by the equipment manufacturer or by a company approved by him. The actions to be performed are similar to manufacturing actions.
Examples of level 5 maintenance interventions include rebuilding or repairing equipment or bringing equipment into compliance with new regulations.
Maintenance levels and CMMS
The use of an efficient and ergonomic CMMS makes it easy to adapt interventions to the level of maintenance to which they correspond. With a next-gen mobile CMMS, it is possible, for example, to associate checklists with each piece of equipment, as well as all the technical documentation necessary for the work of maintenance technicians.
In addition, a community-based CMMS provides easy access to all the technical documentation provided by machine manufacturers and industrial suppliers, in order to have the elements necessary for level 3 and 4 maintenance operations. It also facilitates contact with manufacturers or approved service providers for level 5 maintenance operations.